Civil litigation is a dispute between two parties which, rather than a criminal action, seek monetary damages or a specific performance. Civil actions tend to concern relationships between people, such as landlords and tenants, or the enforcement of contracts such as failure to perform a contracted action or paying an agreed-upon sum. There are numerous rules governing civil procedure in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Failure to understand and follow exactly civil procedure requirements can result in a dismissal before trial. An experienced civil litigation attorney knows the rules and requirements for initiating and maintaining a civil procedure action through its final disposition, which can be a lengthy process with many deadlines and multiple filings.