Civil litigation is a dispute between two parties which seeks monetary damages or a specific performance, rather than a criminal action. Civil actions tend to concern relationships between people such as Landlord/Tenant disputes, and enforcement of contracts, such as failure to perform a contracted action or failure to pay an agreed-upon sum. There are numerous rules governing civil procedure in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Failure to understand and follow exactly civil procedure requirements can result in a dismissal before trial. An experienced civil litigation attorney knows the rules and requirements for initiating and maintaining a civil procedure action through its final disposition, which can be a lengthy process with many deadlines and multiple filings.